Of all the times to live in throughout history the Medieval period was probably one to avoid. For the record the main users of these forms of torture were the various churches of the day in the name of Christianity. The methods of torture below are all European in origin. Despite looking fairly inoffensive this little device is not only great for toasting marshmallows but is all you need to get a confession out of the toughest of heretics, sinners and blasphemers. The victim would be restrained so they were upright, either by hanging from the ceiling or tying to a chair.
Trained since childhood and practised at tournaments, the skilled knight could inflict fatal injuries on even an armoured opponent. A mounted knight wielding a lance was a fearsome enough sight but a dismounted one swinging a sword that could sever limbs with one blow was an awesome psychological weapon in itself. There were several types of knights who fought in an army during wartime or performed guard duty in a castle. The largest group was composed of household knights, those who permanently served a specific lord and rode with him in war.
The flail was a deadly medieval age weapon used in military warfare, however many flails were also used to administer punishment for crimes against the state and church. Flails have one or more weights attached to a handle by chain. Flails were very difficult to block with a shield because the can bend around or over shields and armour.
Some have argued that the cyclical experience of time -- and by extension clock time -- constitutes one of humanity's more masochistic inventions. That's not to discount the importance of clocks and calenders. After all, we can scarcely imagine the rise of empires and the steady advance of science without them. But these human inventions also break down existence into predictable chunks.